On February 4, 1945, since the defeat of the Nazi regime was in reach, the three main Allied leaders convened at the Crimean resort town of Yalta to get a yearlong summit that set the scene to its decades-long Cold War.
Nazi regime with a Finish
Allied forces were pushing into Germany in the west after landing in Normandy and Provence weeks before, while at the east, Soviet soldiers had reached Poland.
The results of the war were then, a foregone conclusion. Germany capitulated only 3 months later on May 7, a week after Hitler killed himself at a Berlin bunker.
What has been agreed at Yalta?
The primary result of the Yalta Conference was that the division of Germany into inhabited zones handled by French, British, Soviet and US forces.
The leaders decided that the German military system could be confiscated or abolished and major war criminals should be tried by a global court. A commission as additionally set up to ascertain reparations.
Following the problem of Germany has been settled, the three leaders switched to Europe.
In a prior meeting in Moscow in October 1944, Churchill and Stalin had agreed to split up Europe to zones of influence. however, it was determined in Yalta that nations in southern Europe — such as Bulgaria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania — could be permitted to hold free elections. Poland, however, would cede some of its lands to the USSR.
Roosevelt, who thought the Soviet Union could be necessary to defeat Japan following the collapse of Nazi Germany, also agreed that the USSR would recover islands Japan had won at the turn of this century.
Last, the 3 leaders continued discussions on the way the United Nations would function with Stalin consenting to combine.
“Never before have the significant allies become more closely combined — not just in their war goals but also within their peace aims. And they’re determined to continue to be combined, to be combined — and with peace-loving states — so that the ideal of lasting peace will become a fact,” Roosevelt informed the US Congress following the summit.
What occurred after Yalta?
The direction in Britain and the US shifted quickly. Churchill was unseated at the July 1945 general election while Roosevelt died of a brain hemorrhage two weeks following the summit.
Roosevelt had underestimated the results of the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the way the Soviet Union would therefore not have to join the war against Japan.
Meanwhile, Stalin, whose forces occupied much of eastern Europe in the conclusion of the war, reneged on his pledge to hold for democratic and free elections and rather established communist parties throughout Eastern Europe.
2 decades later, Harry Truman, who succeeded Roosevelt in the White House, unveiled his philosophy to inspect the Soviet civic growth.
The Cold War had begun.